In addition to LCD technology (you can read more about them here) modern monitors are utilizing OLED technology or organic light emitting diodes. Before i mentioned that LCD displays used backlights to generate the light that the polarizer-lcd-polarizer would filter out to create the images that we see. In the beginning CCFL or HCFL also known as cold cathode fluorescent lamps or hot cathode fluorescent lamp, or some really early LCDs used incandescent light bulbs. The reason that CCFLs were used was because the light that they emit can easily controlled. Early LED lights or light emitting diodes were to difficult and expensive to create an array which could evenly light a screen whereas CCFLs could easily be manufactured in long shapes. But like most technology we found ways to make the LED smaller and they are now becoming the prefered way to backlit LCDs. Instead of long tubes of CCFL behind the TV there would be an array of hundred of LED behind the display this allow more granular control over the lighting of the screen and allow for much better contrast between active and inactive LCD crystals. Also LED provide huge power savings and allow the screen to be much thinner overall.
OLED Technology is the newest technology instead of more normal liquid crystal sandwiched in between two polarizers OLED are placed in between those layer and no back light is need because these OLEDs produce their own light. Even though each part of the pixels is now individually lit OLEDs still need polarizers to block some internal light. But OLED allow for much better color separation between the RGB OLEDs making the color much better also they can be turn off which helps a lot in in making black seem dark on screen. The down side now (2018) is the technology is new and still very expensive to produce.
Displayport is a new type of connection standard for displays it looks similar to a HDMI cable but is shaped like a SATA cable with the angled end on each side in the connector. They cable connectors also have prongs on the connectors which help secure them inside their ports unlike VGA or DVI terminals Display port terminal don’t require extra tools or effort you can just plug and unplug the cables the prongs work with with minimal force. Display port is also backwards compatible with HDMI, DVI, and VGA all you need is the right adaptor. Version 1.3 can transfer up to 8192 x 4320 resolutions. Display port also transmits audio up to 8 channels of audio.
LED backlight has also caused more and more manufacturers to create large curved displays. These display are designed to help user be more productive as the large area make is easier of them to place more windows.
Many modern graphics card support variable refresh rates. AMD FreeSync, Nvidia G-Sync, VESA Adaptive-Sync, Apple Promotion, and HDMI 2.1 VRR are the names of each brand variable refresh rate technologies. Most modern screen are “refresh” at a set amount a second usually 60 hertz, 120 hertz and some even at 240 hertz. but this causes a graphical artifact called screen tearing in some situations. But with these new technologies the monitor refresh as the signals are given. Unfortunately not all of these technologies are compatible and you should check before you buy your monitor or graphics card to see if they will support each other.