Windows server is a version of windows that is design to work on a network to process data from multiple sources and multiple users. It is mostly a GUI based OS but admins can use powershell to work with it in command line. It includes some exclusive features that make it able to act as a backbone to huge enterprise networks.
One of those is its Active Directory set of programs and protocols. Active Directory Domain Services helps networks authorize and authenticate users. It also limits those users to access command and features that they’re are approved for. Basically if your logging into a large institutions network chances are you interacting with a Windows Server AD DS service.
Another very important feature of Windows servers is it’s DNS services or Domain Name Server. This logs and coordinates the networks resources including other computer, servers, access points, printers, POS systems. The DNS server in Windows Server helps device on the network find each other.
Also Windows Server handles SQL databases. You can have a separate Database server if you’d like but Windows Server can handle it on the same instance and includes all of the redundancy features that you might need to keep you data safe.
Group Policy Servers allow you to set those rules that limit users ability to access resources on the network, like printers or features on local machines.